Message 2: “A 2015 agreement should acknowledge the importance of agriculture for food security and livelihoods and the role it can play to help meet global adaptation and mitigation goals. Agriculture should not be excluded from the commitments made by countries. ”
The second of nine factsheets containing data and facts extracted from the sources below and others, then mapped to the nine key messages or topics of this guide/toolkit. Data will be related to UNFCCC negotiations, food security and nutrition, small vs large scale farmers, as well as specific topics such as:
- The benefits of adapting to, and mitigating the effects of, climate change;
- Key statistics on the impact agriculture has on climate change;
- Impacts of climate change on agriculture;
- Adaptation-mitigation co-benefits;
- What is the SBSTA work programme?
Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) plays a central role for food security and sustainable development. The sector’s mitigation potential is derived from both an enhancement of removals of greenhouse gases (GHG), as well as reduction of emissions through management of land and livestock.
Opportunities for mitigation include supply-side and demand-side options:
- Supply side: forestry, land-based agriculture, livestock, integrated systems and bioenergy
- Demand side: reduced losses in the food supply chain, changes in human diets and in demand for wood and forestry products
The nature of the sector means that there are potentially many barriers to implementation of available mitigation options, including accessibility to AFOLU financing, poverty, institutional, ecological, technological development, diffusion and transfer barriers.
There is significant mitigation potential from agriculture, forestry, and bioenergy mitigation measures, e.g.:
- Reductions in CH4 or N2O emissions from croplands, grazing lands, and livestock.
- Conservation of existing carbon stocks and soil carbon that would otherwise be lost.
- Enhancement of carbon sequestration
Changing land-use practices, technological advancements and varietal improvements have enabled world grain harvests to double from 1.2 to 2.5 billion tonnes per year between 1970 and 2010.
Adaptation options for agriculture include technological responses, enhancing smallholder access to credit and other critical production resources, strengthening institutions at local to regional levels, and improving market access through trade reform.
Responses to decreased food production and quality include developing new crop varieties adapted to changes in CO2, temperature, and drought; enhancing the capacity for climate risk management; and offsetting economic impacts of land-use change. Improving financial support and investing in the production of small-scale farms can also provide benefits. Expanding agricultural markets and improving the predictability and reliability of the world trading system could result in reduced market volatility and help manage food supply shortages caused by climate change.
In agriculture, the most cost-effective mitigation options are cropland management, grazing land management and restoration of organic soils. Source: IPCC