Stories tagged: Rural development

From Potential to Reality: Innovative solutions to the global hunger crisis

Joachim von Braun, Professor for Economic and Technological Change at the Center for Development Research (ZEF) of the University of Bonn, outlines how Africa can overcome the global hunger crisis.

Food systems around the world are facing a multi-dimensional crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically disrupted the food supply chain due to bottlenecks in farm labour, processing and transportation. Additionally, the war in Ukraine adds uncertainty to grain supply as Russia and Ukraine account for 20 per cent and 30 per cent of global maize and wheat exports, respectively. Hunger is on the rise in Africa, with issues such as acute climate stress and inflation impacting people’s ability to buy goods.

Urgent and coordinated international action is needed to achieve food security while safeguarding the environment. Policymakers must work to build sustainable and resilient food systems, while also managing the ongoing food crisis. In addition, the development sector needs to invest in scaleable, global innovative solutions driven by scientific expertise to achieve progress and reduce hunger.

From the 2021 UN Food Systems Summit to the G20 and COP27 – with its first-ever Food Systems Pavilion – food systems have remained high on the international agenda and global leaders must continue this momentum. To do so, a number of short- and long-term courses of action for policy and partnerships must be addressed, with innovation at the centre.


Long term strategic priorities for governments 

In the long term, regional and international cooperation can help turn Africa’s agricultural and food systems’ potential into a reality. For example, to secure a regular food supply for affordable and healthy diets while also ensuring sustainable use of resources, policymakers must prioritise investment and policy actions that benefit African society as a whole. 

By investing in and supporting small businesses and making productive use of the African Continental Free Trade Area, entrepreneurship in the region can be fostered. Small-scale businesses need to be supported with improved agricultural finance infrastructures so that they can access investment and microfinance opportunities.

Additionally, investing in skills development programmes should also remain a priority for policymakers in Africa, as supporting young women and men with vocational training and extension services can improve skills for all professions along the value chain. While developing skills is an important aspect of improving economic outcomes and building resilience, much of rural Africa remains disconnected from these opportunities. However, this can be resolved through better rural infrastructure and digital connectivity. 

Moreover, investing in innovations, agricultural research, solar energy supported small-scale irrigation, rural energy, digitalisation and mechanisation of production can help communities recover from global shocks.

Short term actions to improve food security

In the short term, policymakers must focus on a number of main sectors for growth, such as trade, social protection, employment and health. Trade, in particular, is essential to growing economic opportunities in Africa. In particular, supporting international efforts to unblock the grain supply – and compensating those that are indirectly impacted by the blockages – is important to reviving the food supply. Expanding trade finance and advancing intra-African trade by conducting transactions in local currencies can also help manage the food crisis. In addition, improved technology and scientific innovations like data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) policymakers and civil society organisations can also prevent food crises from turning into famines.

Strong social protection systems must also be developed to help vulnerable people cope with the global hunger crisis and external shocks. Better employment opportunities, investments in the health and education of children, and cash transfer programmes are all ways families can be empowered to lift themselves out of poverty. Nutrition programmes that are expanded to school meals, health systems and food fortification can address the growing diet deficiencies among rural and urban populations in Africa.

Looking ahead: Learning from Africa’s successes in food and agriculture

Above all, global cooperation is important in solving some of these challenges, but Africa has made great strides in advancing towards the goals set under both the Malabo Declaration and the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet, the progress is fragile and ensuring food security and improved nutrition is still a challenge. There is more to be done to ensure that Africa is on track to achieve Zero Hunger (SDG 2) by 2030.

The Malabo Montpellier Report “Recipes for success” (2021) can serve as a guideline for African policymakers, development partners and the private sector to achieve sustained progress toward resilient food systems. According to the report, food systems transformation in Africa can be achieved by adopting an approach that can close the gaps that are impeding progress toward sustainable growth. Beginning with countries’ development agendas, food systems transformation through innovative solutions must be an integral part of their national vision. 

Placing African innovation at the centre of food systems transformation is key to achieving resilience across the continent and around the world. By implementing smart regulations, nurturing scientific growth and supporting youth with the resources they need, African and international policymakers can optimise conditions to catalyse action across food systems.

 

Photo: UN COP27 Climate Talks, November 2022 (UNFCCC)

Agriculture and Rural Development Day

Taking place at the Rio+20 Summit in Brazil, the event will give voice to a wide cross section of people working on land, food and sustainability. Learning events will explore concrete cases of success that could translate into a thorough transformation of the global food system, and afternoon sessions will focus on science for a food-secure future

The day will feature keynote speakers, a high-level panel discussion, and 13 participatory “learning events” – giving voice to a wide cross section of stakeholders. The learning events will explore concrete cases of success, which, if scaled out through greater investment, could translate into a thorough transformation of the global food system. The afternoon will showcase science innovations for a food-secure future.

See the event website here and the programme here.

New Chicago Council report calls for increased investment in rural adolescent girls

A new report titled “Girls Grow: A Vital Force in Rural Economies” from the Chicago Council on Global Affairs has called for girls and women to be prepared to become “major stakeholders in agriculture and natural resource management”.

The report identifies girls as key to unlocking the full potential of agricultural development in developing countries, and to secure food supplies.

The report argues that rural adolescent girls face a “triple challenge” of rural location, gender and age which restricts their development into the agents of change they could become.

The report provides a seven-step action plan for investing in rural girls. These steps are:

  • Expand opportunities for rural adolescent girls to go to school
  • Equip rural adolescent girls to be entrepreneurs, workers, and managers in the rural economy and beyond
  • Prepare rural adolescent girls to be major stakeholders in agriculture and natural resource management
  • Empower and provide opportunities for rural adolescent girls to have an active voice in household, community and national decision making
  • Provide rural adolescent girls with comprehensive health information and services
  • Improve rural adolescent girls’ safety and security
  • Count girls and measure progress

The report pays special attention to how girls uniquely contribute to agriculture. It argues that if women farmers were given the same access to productive resources such as land and water as men, the results could be significant, with he potential for women’s agricultural yields to increase by 20 to 30 per cent, national agricultural output to increase by 2.5 to 4 per cent and the number of undernourished people to reduce by 12 to 17 per cent.

The report goes on to say:

“Girl’s responsibilities at home and on the farm give them unique knowledge of local crop species and environmental conditions, making them natural players in natural resource management. They can become leaders in agricultural research and extension and as entrepreneurs and workers across the agricultural value chain.”

Policy Coherence in Agriculture and Rural Development

The Global Donor Platform for Rural Development has released a study on policy coherence within the field of Agriculture and Rural Development (ARD) “Platform Knowledge Piece 1: Policy Coherence for Agriculture and Rural Development”.

The report explores the need for policy coherence to make sure that policies for development do not contradict one another but rather complement each other, creating synergies. This is importnant, the report says, as:

“In the absence of clear guildelines, policies and programmes proliferate. Some potentially compete, duplicate and overlap one another, leading to waste and loss. This is exacerbated by the tendency for new policies and programmes to emerge while older ones are not always clearly retired.”

Within the report, the authors talk about the particular challenges of ensuring policy coherence for ARD. They highlight three aspects that distinguish ARD:

–       Agriculture and most rural enterprises are carried out by private enterprises, most of which are small and dispersed over large areas, sometimes with little access to ports and cities. This means more technical uncertainly than other sectors, and a higher risk of market failures when interacting with others in the supply chain

–       A wide range of objectives are commonly invested in ARD – economic growth; export earnings; poverty; employment; gender equality; food and nutrition security; conservation; and regional equity

–       Political support for agriculture is often weak and unfocussed. Responsibilities for providing the public goods and services to support agriculture tend to be spread over several ministries and agencies, and may well not be providing the more important and costly public goods such as rural roads, education, and clean water.

As well as the three challenges highlighted above, the authors say that there is the expectation that ARD policy will serve multiple objectives. Factoring in limited administrative capacity in many developing countries leaves us with inconsistent and contradictory policy, which will need sustained interest and effort in order to be aligned and coherent.