Stories tagged: biofortification

Fortified Food: Boosting Nutrition in the Developing World

Food security is not only about the quantity of food we eat; it is also the quality of that food, and the nutrition that it provides. Malnutrition causes death and diseases, as well as affecting children’s growth, and adult’s productivity. 10.9 million children under five die in developing countries each year. Malnutrition and hunger-related diseases cause 60 percent of the deaths. One out of four children – roughly 146 million – in developing countries is underweight. It has become increasingly apparent that this is no longer an issue for health institutions alone; agriculture can also play a vital role in improving health in the developing world. One way in which it can do this, is by boosting the nutritional value of crops.

Last week, the Rwandan Government announced the release of five new iron-rich bean varieties. Bred by the Rwanda Agriculture Board and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), with funding from HarvestPlus, the beans are high yielding, resistant to major diseases and pests and could provide up to 30% of the population’s daily iron needs.

Anaemia, a disease caused by iron deficiency, affects 40% of children under‐five in Rwanda. By September, HarvestPlus and its partners expect to distribute more than 200 tons of the iron-rich climbing and bush bean varieties through agrodealers and local markets to about 75,000 farming households. They predict that by the end of 2013, more than half a million household members will be eating iron-rich beans.

In Egypt,  the World Food Programme (WFP) has been working with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) for the last two years to fortify the nation’s staple food, baladi bread, with iron and folic acid. These micronutrients, which are crucial particularly for the health of children and pregnant women, are now benefitting over 50 million people and reducing the number of preventable diseases and miscarriages. A study conducted by WFP in May 2012 showed that in Egypt, employers could gain over $175 million by reducing levels of anaemia in the workforce. Furthermore, it showed that every $0.17 invested in fortifying flour for baladi bread in Egypt is estimated to return over $4.00 to the economy, demonstrating that bio-fortification can be one of the most cost effective public health tools, and beneficial for the national economy.

WFP’s study showed that every $0.17 invested in fortifying flour for baladi bread in Egypt is estimated to return over $4.00 to the economy, demonstrating that bio-fortification can be one of the most cost effective public health tools, and beneficial for the national economy.

This video, produced by ONE International, tells the story of Egypt’s fortification programme through the eyes of a young family whose newest member proves the impact the programme has had.

Click here to read more ways in which agriculture can bolster nutrition.

HarvestPlus and the Biofortification of the Seven Key Staple Crops in Africa and Asia

The diets of the poor in developing countries usually consist of very high amounts of staple foods such as maize, wheat and rice, and few micronutrient-rice foods such as fruits and vegetables.

Harvest Plus seeks to reduce micronutrient malnutrition among the poor by breeding and disseminating staple food crops that are high in iron, zinc and vitamin A. Working with more than 200 agricultural and nutrition scientists around the world, the centre is currently biofortifying the seven key staple crops that will have the greatest impact in alleviating micronutrient malnutrition in Asia and Africa – beans, maize, cassava, pearl millet, rice, sweet potato and wheat.

The first crop to be developed was the orange sweet potato. The sweet potato is traditionally eaten in Africa where it is the fifth most important staple crop. Working with partners, HarvestPlus released an orange-fleshed sweet potato in Uganda and Mozambique that is far richer in vitamin A than the white or yellow-coloured varieties, providing an estimated 50% of the mean daily vitamin A requirement. At first, people were not used to this new orange-coloured crop, but once they had had the nutritional benefits explained to them, they were willing to use this new sweet potato. In 2022, 10 million people will be eating provitamin A sweet potato in Uganda, and 1 million in Mozambique.

Soon, HarvestPlus will release two more nutritious staple foods in Africa: iron-fortified beans in Rwanda and vitamin A-fortified maize in Zambia. HarvestPlus envisions that in fifteen years, millions of people suffering from micronutrient malnutrition will be eating new biofortified crop varieties.

Launched in 2004 by the International Center for Tropical Agricuture (CIAT) and the International Food Policy Research Insitute (IFPRI) the centre receives funding from various research institutes and development agencies, including the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture.

Fighting Poor Nutrition with Biofortified Sorghum

Africa continues to slip behind in meeting basic nutritional needs, with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for half the deaths of children under the age of five within the developing world. The Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) project is a public-private consortium that seeks to use biotechnology to develop a more nutritious and easily digestible sorghum that contains increased levels of essential nutrients, especially lysine, vitamin A, iron and zinc.

Malnutrition is defined as the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients. Poor nutrition and calorie deficiencies cause nearly one in three people to die prematurely or have disabilities, according to the World Health Organisation.  Malnutrition constitutes a global ‘silent emergency’, killing millions every year and sapping the long-term economic vitality of nations.

Food fortification is the practice of adding micronutrients to foods to ensure that minimum dietary requirements are met. The use of biotechnological methods involves inserting a gene with codes for the nutrients into the seed.  This seed is then bred with a high yield quality crop, resulting in the production of crops rich in micronutrients. Agricultural biotechnology methods, and in specific genetic modification, represent therefore a very valuable, complementary strategy for the development of more nutritious crops.

The ABS project has the potential to improve the health of 300 million people by increasing sorghum’s nutritional quality. Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop and the main dietary staple for more than 500 million people across the entire developing world. It is the only viable food grain for many of the world’s most food insecure people, and what’s more sorghum is uniquely adapted to Africa’s climate, being both drought resistant and able to withstand periods of water-logging. The potential for sorghum to be the driver of economic development in Africa is enormous.

So far, six successful sets of field trials of nutritionally enhanced sorghum have been conducted in the United States where the sorghum has proven stable and effective over several generations. Greenhouse trials of nutritionally sorghum have been undertaken in South Africa and Kenya. Applications for field trials are in the process of approval in Kenya and Nigeria.

Additionally to the potential health benefits, the ABS project also serves as a model of creative partnerships, bringing together public and private, South / South and North / South organisations. Each partner brings to the table their own particular strengths and helps to create an enabling environment for the use of ABS in Africa, that can be altered and fixed according to the local conditions, cultures and issues encountered in different areas. From Pioneer Hi-Bred, a DuPont business that provided the initial technologies for the project, to the national research institutes, technology organisations, policy institutions and universities involved, the project is a successful consortium whose size and diversity mirrors the complexities and extent of the challenges that Africa faces.